Summarise the following 4 political philosophies in less than 100 words.
Libertarianism – It emphasises heavily on individual rights and individual freedom over group rights and freedom. As a result, the government of such societies often do not have much authority over the people, only serving to ensure that basic security and peace is observed in a country. The government will not interfere or interject into its people’s affairs, taking a backseat in their role of managing all aspects of a country. It is very much a concept of citizens running themselves, where they are given much more freedom to do whatever they want.
Social Democracy – It is a system where there is a focus on justice, freedom and group interests. It incorporates both socialist and capitalist concepts. It gradually shifts from a capitalist economic system to a socialist economic system. There are welfare services that the government provides to the needy, but the country continues to ensure that people are doing their part as well, and not just settling for mediocrity which is what happens in socialist societies. The system would still ensure innovation and improvement through capitalism.
Communism – It emphasises heavily on equality, where everyone would be given the exact same privileges as everyone else. Such societies would have all methods of production come under ownership of the government. The government would divide all resources and opportunities equally among its people, but with needier folks receiving more. A larger family would have more food sent their way compared to a smaller family is an example. The society works toward a common goal and a greater good for all its people, and it focuses more on group rights and freedom over individual.
Utilitarianism – It is about aiming to provide the most number of people possible with happiness, and reducing suffering. It targets the majority and ignores most individual rights, and thus neglect a lot of people’s ideas. Should a majority be very narrow, you would still be left with a very unhappy nation, as many of the people are not appeased. There is a contradiction in its definition. When you aim to provide the most number of people with maximum happiness, that actually refers to everyone, and you would thus need to take into account group rights.